Held in Constantinople in 381. Under Emperor
Theodosius the Great. 150 Bishops were present.
The Macedonian Controversy
Macedonius, somewhat like Arius,
was misinterpreting Church's teaching on the Holy Spirit. He taught that the
Holy Spirit was not a person ("hypostasis"), but simply a power
(dynamic") of God. Therefore the Spirit was inferior to the Father and the
Son. The Council condemned Macedonius' teaching and
defined the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. The Council decreed that there was
one God in three persons ("hypostases"): Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
The holy fathers of the Council added five articles to the Creed. They read as follows:
And (We believe) in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father:
who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified: who spoke
by the prophets. In one Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church.
I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins. I look for the
resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.
Defenders of Orthodoxy
St. Gregory of Nazianzus, the Theologian
He was a scholar who studied in Athens
with St. Basil the Great; became Patriarch of Constantinople (379); presided at
the Second Ecumenical Council; a poet and profound thinker. He wrote many
poems, hymns essays, and sermons.
St. Gregory of Nyssa (331-396)
of St. Basil the Great. He was a theologian who delved deeply into the
truths of the Faith.
St. John Chrysostom (345-407)
John was born and educated in Antioch
(Syria). He became Patriarch of Constantinople in 398. He is known for his eloquent and
straight-forward sermons (Chrysostomos: "the
golden-mouthed"); was responsible for the revision of the Divine Liturgy.
He died in exile.